What is diabetes?Diabetes
Diabetes is a condition that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and it comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone produced by pancreas, helps glucose from food to enter your cells for energy. Sometimes your body does not make enough insulin – or some – or does not use insulin properly. Glucose then stays in your blood and does not reach your cells.
Over time, too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes cannot be cured, you can take steps to manage diabetes and stay healthy.Diabetes is sometimes referred to as “diabetes mellitus” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms indicate that a person does not really have diabetes or has a mild form of diabetes, but all forms of diabetes are serious.
The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.
Type in diabetes first
If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not produce insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells. Type 1 diabetes is more common in children and the elderly, although it can occur at any time. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin daily to stay healthy.Diabetes
Diabetes Type 2
If you have type 2 diabetes, your body is not making or using insulin properly. Diabetes 2 typ. You can have type 2 diabetes at any time, even as a child. However, this type of diabetes is more common in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes.Eating and exercising can help some people to manage type 2 diabetes. If lifestyle changes are not enough to lower your blood sugar, you will need to take medication. You may need to take more of these drugs. Some Diabetes people with type 2 diabetes also take insulin.
Pregnancy diabetes develops in some women during pregnancy. Most of the time, this type of diabetes disappears after the baby is born. However, if you have ever had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Sometimes diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy is actually type 2 diabetes.You will need to monitor your blood sugar several times a day during pregnancy. At high altitudes, changes in diet and exercise may or may not be enough to bring it down.Diabetes
Other types of diabetes
Uncommon types Diabetes include monogenic diabetes, which is a genetic form of diabetes, as well as diabetes-related cystic fibrosis.
How common is diabetes?
As of 2015, 30.3 million people in the United States, or 9.4 percent of the population, had diabetes. More than 1 in 4 of them did not know they had the disease. Diabetes affects one in four people over the age of 65. About 90-95 percent of cases in adults are type 2 diabetes.1
Who is most likely to develop type 2 diabetes?
You are more likely to develop diabetes if you are 45 years or older, have a history of diabetes, or are overweight. Physical inactivity, race, and certain health problems such as high blood pressure also affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. You are more likely to develop the type of diabetes if you have prediabetes or have gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Learn more about the risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Over time, high blood glucose leads to such problems:
- Heart disease
- kidney disease
- eye problems
- dental disease
- emotional trauma
- foot problems
You can take steps to reduce your risk of developing these diabetes-related problems.
Treatment of diabetes
Doctors treat diabetes with a few different medications. Some of these drugs are taken orally, while others are available as injections.
Type in diabetes first
Insulin is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes. It replaces hormones that your body cannot produce.
There are four types of insulin that are widely used. They are divided into how fast they start working, and how long their results last:
The fast-acting insulin starts to work within 15 minutes and its effects last for 3 to 4 hours.
Temporary insulin starts to take effect within 30 minutes and lasts for six to eight hours.
Medium-acting insulin takes effect within one to two hours and lasts 12 to 18 hours.
Long-acting insulin starts to work a few hours after the injection and lasts 24 hours or more.
According to the Mayo Clinic, about 10 to 20 percent of women with gestational diabetes need insulin to lower blood sugar. Insulin is safe for a growing baby.
The medicine or combination of drugs prescribed by your doctor will depend on the type of diabetes you have – and the cause. Check out this list of the various drugs available to treat diabetes.
Diabetes and diet
Healthy eating is an important part of managing diabetes. In some cases, changing the way you eat is not enough to control the disease.
Type in diabetes first
- Your blood sugar level rises or falls depending on the type of food you eat. Starchy or sugary foods cause blood sugar levels to rise rapidly. Proteins and fats cause a gradual increase.
- Your medical team may recommend that you limit the amount of carbohydrates you consume each day. You will also need to balance your carb diet with your insulin levels.
- Work with a dietitian who can help you design a diet plan for diabetes. Finding the right balance of protein, fats, and carbs can help you control your blood sugar. See this guide to the first type 1 diet for diabetes.
- Eating the right foods can control your blood sugar and help you lose any excess weight.
- Carb counts are an important part of a diet for type 2 diabetes. A dietitian can help you determine how many grams of carbohydrate you can eat at each meal.
- To keep blood sugar stable, try eating small meals throughout the day. Emphasize healthy eating such as:
- whole grains
- reduced protein such as chicken and fish
- healthy fats like olive oil and nuts
- Some foods may undermine efforts to keep your blood sugar under control.Find foods to avoid if you have diabetes.